Antibody specificity was demonstrated by detection of differential expression of the target protein in cell line upon treatment with secretion blockers. This would enable retention of target protein inside the cell. Relative expression of Chromogranin A was observed in SH-SY5Y and IMR-32 cells treated with PTI (1X for 4hr) and with FL1-06 (10uM for 4hr) as compared to the corresponding untreated cells using immunohistochemistry (Paraffin) analysis of Chromogranin A was performed in paraffin-embedded mouse pancreas tissue using Chromogranin A Polyclonal Antibody
Chymotrypsin is a proteolytic enzyme produced by the pancreas that acts in the duodenum. Chymotrypsin preferentially cleaves peptide amide bonds where the carboxyl side of the amide bond (the P1 position) is a large hydrophobic amino acid (tyrosine, tryptophan, and phenylalanine). These amino acids contain an aromatic ring in their sidechain that fits into a ‘hydrophobic pocket’ (the S1 position) of the enzyme. The proenzyme chymotrypsinogen is activated by trypsin.
This cytokeratin cocktail can be useful in differentiation of the squamous cell carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. The 34bE12 clone recognizes cytokeratin (CK) 1, 5, 10 and 14. It is reactive with stratified epithelia, myoepithelial and basal cells of prostate and breast, and it stains squamous carcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas (brown). Clone 5D3 recognizes cytokeratin (CK) 8 and 18 of all simple and glandular epithelium and adenocarcinomas (red).
Cytokeratin 14 (CK14) belongs to the type A (acidic) subfamily of high molecular weight keratins and exists in combination with keratin 5. CK14 has been studied as a prognostic marker in breast cancer. CK14 distinguishes stratified epithelial cells from simple epithelial cells and has been reported useful in the identification of squamous cell carcinomas.
Cytokeratin 17 (CK17) is an effective marker to distinguish myoepithelial cells from luminal epithelium of various glands (mammary, sweat, salivary, bronchial, tracheal, laryngeal, esophageal) and benign from malignant forms of tumors, e.g. mammary gland tumors. Predominant expression of CK17 is the characteristic feature of basal cell carcinomas. It is often positive in carcinomas of pancreatic or biliary origin.
Anti-Cytokeratin 19 reacts with a wide variety of epithelium and epithelial malignancies including adenocarcinomas of the colon, stomach, pancreas, biliary tract, liver and breast. Perhaps the most useful application is the identification of thyroid carcinoma of the papillary type, although, follicular carcinoma is also labeled by this antibody approximately 50-60% of the time.
This antibody is directed against a type I cytokeratin protein of mature enterocytes and goblet cells of the gastric and intestinal mucosa. This antibody produces a cytoplasmic staining pattern, and may be used to aid in the identification of normal cytokeratin 20 expressing cells and neoplastic cells of colonic epithelial lineage.
Anti-Cytokeratin 5/6 (D5/16B4) antibody) detects cytokeratins 5 and 6. Cytokeratin 5 is expressed in various epithelia and mesothelial cells, while cytokeratin 6 is expressed by proliferating squamous epithelium. This antibody exhibits a cytoplasmic staining pattern and may be used to aid in the identification of squamous cell carcinoma and in distinguishing malignant mesothelioma from lung adenocarcinomas. The detection of cytokeratin 5 in myoepithelial cells with this antibody may also be used to aid in the determination of breast and prostate malignancies.
This antibody is directed against a type II cytokeratin protein expressed by most ductal, glandular and transitional epithelia. Cytokeratin 7 exhibits a cytoplasmic localization. This antibody may be used to aid in the identification of normal and neoplastic cells of ovary, lung and breast epithelial origin which express Cytokeratin 7, and those of colonic and prostate epithelial lineage which lack Cytokeratin 7 production.