In the promoter region of the UTG1A1 gene TA polymorphism is assessed by fragment analysis using capillary electrophoresis. The detected alleles include the common normal allele *1 (with 6 TA repeats) and the common abnormal allele *28 (7 repeats). Both the patient's genotype and the associated high, intermediate, or low toxicity risk from the quinolone-based alkaloids are reported. Polymorphisms can lead to toxicity from incomplete metabolism of the some cancer drugs used to treat colorectal, stomach, lung, brain, and breast cancers. This test is also used for diagnostic confirmation of Gilbert and Crigler-Najjar hyperbilirubinemia syndromes.
Uroplakin II is a 15 kDa protein component of urothelial plaques. Uroplakin II mRNA was found in both bladder cancer tissues and peripheral blood of patients with primary and metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Uroplakin II antibody [BC21] is a highly specific antibody that may be useful in identifying tumors of urothelial origin.
Uroplakin III (SP73) antibody is intended for qualified laboratories to qualitatively identify by light microscopy the presence of associated antigens in sections of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections using IHC test methods. Use of this antibody is indicated as an aid in diagnostic determination of transitional cell and bladder carcinoma within the context of the patient’s clinical history and other diagnostic tests evaluated by a qualified pathologist or physician.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein involved in angiogenesis that promotes tumor progression and metastasis. VEGF is a mitogen for vascular endothelial cells derived from arteries, veins and lymphatics, but it is devoid of consistent mitogenic activity for other cell types. VEGF is expressed in many human tumor cells, including adenocarcinomas, such as pancreatic, hepatocellular, renal cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma. In normal tissues, VEGF expression has been observed in activated macrophages, keratinocytes, hepatocytes, smooth muscle cells, Leydig cells, embryonic fibroblasts and bronchial and choroids plexus epithelium, renal glomerular visceral epithelium, and mesangial cells.
Villin is a 95-kD glycoprotein of microvilli associated with rootlet formation in gastrointestinal mucosal epithelium. Anti-Villin labels the brush border area in the gastrointestinal mucosal epithelium. This antibody has been useful in differentiating gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma, neuroendocrine carcinomas and ovarian adenocarcinomas from adenocarcinomas from other organs. Also labeled by this antibody are Merkel cells of the skin.
This antibody is directed against purified bovine eye lens vimentin and has been known to react specifically with human vimentin. This reagent should be used with a panel of antibodies to aid in the immunohistochemical identification of cells of normal and abnormal mesenchymal lineage as an aid in diagnosis of anaplastic tumors in formalin fixed, paraffin embedded tissue. Anti-Vimentin (Vim 3B4) binds specifically with the 57kD intermediate filament protein, vimentin. The clinical interpretation of any staining, or the absence of staining, must be complemented by morphological studies.
Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), a member of the human herpes virus family, causes two distinct clinical manifestations: chickenpox and shingles. Primary VZV infection results in chickenpox (varicella), which may rarely result in complications including encephalitis or pneumonia. This antibody detects VZV in FFPE tissues.